Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing K-12 Technical Vocational Tracks: A Comprehensive Review

Dennis Relojo-Howell

Citation: Dennis Relojo-Howell, "Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing K-12 Technical Vocational Tracks: A Comprehensive Review", Universal Library of Innovative Research and Studies, Volume 01, Issue 01.

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The integration of Technical Vocational Tracks (TVET) within the Philippine K-12 education reform represents a transformative shift. This article conducts an in-depth review of the challenges and opportunities of embedding TVET within the Philippine education system. Using a comprehensive research approach, including literature analysis, surveys, interviews, and document scrutiny, this study explores the complexities of K-12 TVET. Key stakeholders, including educators, students, policymakers, and industry leaders, contribute diverse perspectives. Challenges encompass curriculum-industry alignment, resource allocation, teacher training, and addressing societal perceptions of vocational education. Regional disparities in access further exacerbate these issues. Conversely, opportunities arise in enhanced employability, industry engagement, entrepreneurship incubation, and diversified educational pathways. TVET can bridge skill gaps and drive economic development. This review offers a holistic perspective on coexisting challenges and opportunities in K-12 TVET, contributing to the ongoing discourse on Philippine education reform. The insights inform evidence-based policies, guide curriculum development, and shape the future of TVET within Philippine education, fostering inclusivity and national progress.

Keywords: Curriculum Development; Educational Psychology; Employability; Policy; Vocational Education